Let's Add Up All the Factors
1. In order to learn about the political climate before the fall of Tsarist government read excerpts of Nicholas II diary:
2. Now read the October Manifesto issued by Nicholas II:
3) This Encarta site includes some great background information:
4) This site explores the far reaching historical causes of the February Revolution:
5) Great list of causes in outline form:
Let's Make a Journal
* Remember your entry can be from either the time before Revolution or during the installation of Lenin and his Socialist government*
Key Terms and Concepts
March Revolution Lenin Bolsheviks "Peace and Bread"
Provisional Government April Theses Socialism
For additional terms.... http://historyteacher.net/APEuroCourse/EHAP_Topics/EHAP-Topic-RussianRevol.htm
Check out these sources:
Don't forget you can use some of the links previously included in the "Let's Add Up All the Factors" Section
1) This is an excerpt of description of life before the Revolution for everyday citizens:
" February 1917 began bitterly cold. The streets of Petrograd were filled with ice. Food lines lengthened. "Never before has there been so much swearing, argument and scandal," wrote one Okhrana agent. There were 170,000 troops in the city, double the peacetime garrison, but the secret police thought them to be "raw, untrained material, unfit to put down civil disorders." The best troops, of course, were at the front. On February 14th, police agents reported that army officers had, for the first time, mingled with the crowds demonstrating against the war and the government on Nevsky Prospekt. "Behind the white columns of the hall grinned Hopelessness," a conservative said of the mood at the Duma debates. "And she whispered: ‘Why? What for? What difference does it make?'"
Food hoarding was common. Wood for heating was beyond the means of the poor and the temperature in middle class flats was kept just above freezing. Grain trains on their way to the capital were blocked by heavy snowfalls. International Woman's Day was held on Thursday, February 23rd. This gave an excuse for women from textile plants to stream into the streets shouting, "Down with hunger! Bread for the workers!" They pelted the windows of the engineering shops to bring the men out. Nikolai Sukhanov, the crotchety radical civil servant who was to become the Revolution's diarist and victim, thought the disorders unremarkable. He had seen them before. But what he now noticed was the strange attitude of the authorities. The crowds felt it too. They began overturning tramcars and sacked a large bakery. The "Pharaohs," slang for the police, stood by and did nothing. Okhrana agents noticed that skilled workers now joined the strikers. The agitators working the crowds no longer bothered to pull their overcoats over their heads in order to hide their faces. The troops hesitated when they were told to disperse the crowds. A Cossack officer shouted at some strikers led by an old woman, "Who are you following? You are being led by an old crone." The woman replied, "No old crone, but a sister and wife of soldiers at the front." Someone yelled, "Cossacks, you are our brothers, you can't shoot us." The Cossacks, great symbol of Russian ferocity and terror, turned away."
Taken from The History Guide's Lecture Series on the Russian Revolution
Further resources available at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture5.html
Post February Revolution Sources
1) " Call to Power" by Lenin. Good example of propaganda techniques of the Socialist Government.
2) "April Theses" by Lenin. Another great example of propaganda.
3) John Reed's Ten Days that Shook the World. An American journalist's account of the Russian Revolution.